Please note that the flowchart is highly schematic, omitting nuances and intermediate stages. It is merely intended as a general depiction of the development of hands down to the Secretary and mixed or round hands. From the Caroline minuscule, court or charters hands, which were written cursively for 'administrative' and 'legal' documents, developed as a strand, by comparison with the more formal hands used in the production of 'books' - bookhands or 'textura' hands. By the middle of the thirteenth century, however, the increase in the volume of books induced what Malcolm Parkes designated 'English cursive bookhands', hands used in the production of codices but in a faster process (the pecia process). By the late fifteenth century, two changes had occurred:
  • the introduction of printing (incunabula before 1501); and
  • the development of the 'Bastard Secretary' hand, the precursor of the Secretary hand.
The origins of the 'Bastard Secretary' perhaps belong to the introduction of the 'Burgundian' hands in the late fourteenth century and a more angular script.

Important action: you may click on any of the symbols in the flowchart for an example of the hand - it will bring up a pop-up with an example of the hand - then close the pop-up (but do not use for Carolingian or print).