Bibliography: no references are given here, but are available on request.
The provisions of the Statute of Quia Emptores (Terrarum) (Because [they are] buyers of lands) (1290) introduced two modifications to charters (see below). The statute was intended to correct two related problems:
Problems inevitably occurred since most grants of land and tenures involved subinfeudation which lengthened the 'feudal ladder'. The tenor of Quia Emptores was to replace subinfeudation by substitution (by which grants had been made sporadically). In subinfeudation, the new grantee held of the grantor, adding an additional tenant to the tenurial chain; by substitution, however, the grantor was displaced by the grantee, so that no new tenant was added to the tenurial chain.
The effects can be represented diagrammatically as below.
Before 1290* (subinfeudation) A --- the chief lord | B --- a mesne tenant | C -- a sub-tenant | by a new grant | D -- a further sub-tenant
After 1290 (substitution) A -- the chief lord | B -- a mesne tenant | [C displaced by D] | D -- sub-tenant+
* This is a general statement, since grants by substitution did occasionally occur before 1290.
+ D now held directly of B with C falling out of the chain.
The change in the diplomatic of the charter was twofold: