Although numerals are occasionally represented in words, both in dates and amounts and measurements, they are more frequently represented as Roman numerals. Arabic numerals were not introduced to any degree before the middle of the sixteenth century, in, for example, the Port Books of the 1550s. Even thereafter, Roman numerals continued in frequent use, and occasionally documents of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries confused both Roman and Arabic numerals in the same document. Roman numerals in medieval documents are usually represented with stops before and after (for example, .ij.) and between significant numbers. In the representation of numerals which include i (one), the final i is converted to a j, that is it is a i (a minim) with a tail, thus .vj. or .vij.

numerals one to ten
.iv. OR .iiij.
These are the components for composite numbers, for example: .xviij. (18); .xx. (20); .xxiiij. (24); etc. The following provide higher cardinals:

These higher cardinals are again combined to form larger numbers, for example .lx. (60), .xc. (90), .xciii. (93), .cccc. (400) and so on. Note that in the case of .i. and .x., the position (left or right) of another numeral reflects whether the 10 should be subtracted or added: e.g. .xl.= 40 but .lx.= 60 or .ix.= 9 but .xj.= 11).
There is a further complication, in the long hundred, used most usually in livestock calculations, in which the hundred (.c.) may equate to 120.

Self-assessment on numerals

How to use this self-assessment

Type your answer in the relevant box. Press the tab key. If you are correct, a pop-up alert box will tell you so. If the pop-up alert box does not appear, then you must try again and repeat the process. When you have the correct answer, clear the typing from the box and then press the tab key. Please note that it is important to clear the typing from the box before pressing the tab key; otherwise, you will keep repeating the pop-up alert box.

Convert the following to Arabic numerals.
Q1 .xij.

Q2 .xxxiij.

Q3 .xlj.

Q4 .lxvj.

To be continued